LUNG CANCER


Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women. Lung cancer mainly occurs in older people. About 2 out of 3 people diagnosed with lung cancer are 65 or older, while less than 2% are younger than 45. The average age at the time of diagnosis is about 70.
Url Mənbəyi: http://medistcare.com/bulletin/1408-lung-cancer

LUNG CANCER

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women. Lung cancer mainly occurs in older people. About 2 out of 3 people diagnosed with lung cancer are 65 or older, while less than 2% are younger than 45. The average age at the time of diagnosis is about 70. Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. About 80% of lung cancer deaths are thought to result from smoking. The risk for lung cancer among smokers is many times higher than among non-smokers. Tobacco smoke contains many kinds of carcinogens. Naturally, cancer occurs during aging because activation of steps in the carcinogenic process, such as mutation induction and cell growth, increase during aging. Tobacco smoking exhibits a tumor promoting effect as well as induction of mutation, thus smoking induces a number of steps in carcinogenesis. If a person has stopped smoking, the risk becomes lower as the years pass.

RISK FACTORS:

Tobacco smoke

Smoking

Cigar smoking

pipe smoking

Secondhand smoke

Exposure to radon

Exposure to asbestos

Exposure to other cancer-causing agents in the workplace

Uranium

Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, silica, vinyl chloride, nickel compounds, chromium compounds, coal products, mustard gas, and chloromethyl ethers

Diesel exhaust

Certain dietary supplements

Previous radiation therapy to the lungs

Air pollution

Personal or family history of lung cancer

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:

A cough that doesn’t go away

Trouble breathing

Hoarseness

Chest discomfort

Wheezing

Streaks of blood in sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs)

Loss of appetite

Weight loss for no known reason

Feeling very tired

DIAGNOSIS:

Physical exam and history

Laboratory tests

Chest x-ray

Computerized tomography (CT scan)

PET scan (positron emission tomography scan)

Sputum cytology

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the lung:

Bronchoscopy

Thoracoscopy

Thoracentesis

Light and electron microscopy

Immunohistochemistry study

TREATMENT:

Different types of treatments are available for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Surgery:

Thoracotomy

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)

Robotic Articulative Traction System (RATS)

Chemotherapy

Molecular Target Therapy

Radiation Therapy


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